READ Å 1177 BC The Year Civilization Collapsed


1177 BC The Year Civilization CollapsedH had stretched from Greece to Egypt and Mesopotamia suddenly ceased to exist along with writing systems technology and monumental architecture But the Sea Peoples alone could not have caused such widespread breakdown How did it happenIn this major new account of the causes of this First Dark Ages Eric Cline tells the gripping story of how the end was brought about by multiple interconnected failures ranging from invasion and revolt to earthuakes drought and the cutting of international trade routes Bringing to life the vibrant mu. The foreign countries made a conspiracy in their islands All at once the lands were removed and scattered in the fray No land could stand before their arms from Khatte ode Carchemish Arzawa and Alashiya on being cut off at one time A camp was set up in one place in Amurru They desolated its people and its land was like that which has never come into being They were coming forward toward Egypt while the flame was prepared before them Their confederation was the Peleset Tjekker Shekelesh Danuna and Weshesh lands united They laid their hands upon the lands as far as the circuit of the earth their hearts confident and trusting Walls of the mortuary temple of Ramesses IIIThis book has succeeded in taking an obscurer topic of intense scholarly debate and presenting it to the general public the collapse of Bronze Age civilizations and the appearance of the Sea People whoever they were Where trade routes collapsed cities burned and literacy became nearly extinct and only a few surviving cities clung to continued existence The author has even taken a brilliant framing device financial troubles in Greece and violence along the Eastern Mediterranean is an issue as much as over 3000 years ago as today The prologue starts with the uestion Why did this happen and then going through a list of collapsed regional powers and a discussion of who the Sea People might have been The successive chapters discuss the civilizations of the Late Bronze Age the Hittites the Myceneans Assyria Ugarit Caanan and Egypt starting with networks of contact trade exchanges diplomatic relations and treaty archives A look at trade negotiations for valuable goods does much to ground the era for a contemporary reader's understanding The translation of primary sources does much to bring the period alive for non specialists like myself but the citation of sources I hope would be a useful reference to the specialist in comparing this to ongoing research And yet even with all this ongoing research what caused the collapse is not so certain Cline first examines and then discards the hypothesis that it was the Sea People alone noting how the pharoahs like so many other tyrants lie to boost their own reputation Climactic change may have been the first of so many stressors that led to a broader collapse The introduction of complexity theory of examining so many moving parts and seeing how they interact with one another is another valuable tool for examining ancient history but other events This is an appreciation of history that I found a compelling read

Eric H. Cline ´ 1 READ

In 1177 BC marauding groups known only as the Sea Peoples invaded Egypt The pharaoh's army and navy managed to defeat them but the victory so weakened Egypt that it soon slid into decline as did most of the surrounding civilizations After centuries of brilliance the civilized world of the Bronze Age came to an abrupt and cataclysmic end Kingdoms fell like dominoes over the course of just a few decades No Minoans or Mycenaeans No Trojans Hittites or Babylonians The thriving economy and cultures of the late second millennium BC whic. This is perhaps the most disappointing book I've read in the past five years Moreover I say that based not only on my original assumption about what the author was setting out to achieve but also on my adjusted assumption after reading a few chapters Let's start with the first assumption that this would be a well crafted book exploring external stresses on some interesting societies and the unfortunate results along the lines of a work by Jared Diamond Why would I jump to that conclusion Well for starters let's look at the title and subtitle 1177 BC The Year Civilization Collapsed Does that sound like a scholarly title or one shooting for the best seller list Oh and by the way only at the very end of the book does the author explicitly own up the fact that the collapse really took oh let's be candid as much as 100 years and that the relevance of the year 1177 is simply that this is agreed to be a somewhat arbitrary end date for the end of that processNor does the book provide the type of narrative that would deliver a book of that type or the measured use of detail to support rather than overwhelm that narrative On the other hand he makes much of other forces where there are almost no solid facts to rely on at all For example while Cline makes provocative references to invasions by the Sea Peoples that may have accelerated the process of societal collapse he necessarily then admits that there is virtually no evidence of any kind to say who they were or where they came from only assumptions Even puzzling the only detailed description he provides about any of the actual events involving these mysterious invaders relates to the successful efforts of the Egyptians to turn back the Sea Peoples thereby avoiding societal collapse a rather puzzling introduction to the assumed story lineNor does Cline try to provide much of a picture of daily life for the civilizations involved which brings me to my adjusted assumptions after making my way through the first two chapters That's because what Cline goes on to do is to cite virtually all of the sources of information for various theories making some effort to ualify which are likely to be reliable Indeed the endnotes bibliography and index of the book take up an incredible 56 pages out of the 237 in totalAll of this could have been bearable if the actual text was tighter disciplined and less repetitive But Cline makes the same points over and over and over again without any need or productive result He also skips around through time selecting aspects of this society or another to cite but in ways that do not always add up to a coherent purpose And throughout we are treated to ongoing exposures to the author's conjectures This isn't to say that theories aren't fine but when they are uncomfortably lacking in supporting evidence there's little incentive to learn what one author believes probably occurredIn summary I think that this is at best a uestionably packaged and marketed book and a failed compromise between a work of popular history and serious scholarship In short if you enjoy popular historical works this is a book to be avoided If you're looking for a serious scholarly work then this one suffers from a serious lack of editorial reviewThat said judging by the many reviews that are favorable than mine a there is clearly a type of reader for whom Cline's approach is satisfactory If you are an avid fan of historical detail about a period where your preexisting knowledge is slim then you will certainly find ample detail here about clay tablet letters sent from King A to King B indicating the existence of trade ties between their kingdoms and which goods were found in which amphorae in this wreck or that indicating which regions engaged in trade with those regions That's all perfectly valid and indeed I've read scores of books on archaeology that include exactly the same level of detail You don't expect that type of work to get into the big picture But in my view at least what we find here is an author that has tried to sell to two very different audiences and under delivered to both

READ 1177 BC The Year Civilization Collapsed

READ Å 1177 BC The Year Civilization Collapsed ´ In 1177 BC marauding groups known only as the Sea Peoples invaded Egypt The pharaoh's army and navy managed to defeat them but the victory so weakened Egypt that it soon slid into decline as did most of the surrounding civilizations After centuries of brilliance the civilized world of tLticultural world of these great civilizations he draws a sweeping panorama of the empires and globalized peoples of the Late Bronze Age and shows that it was their very interdependence that hastened their dramatic collapse and ushered in a dark age that lasted centuriesA compelling combination of narrative and the latest scholarship 1177 BC sheds new light on the complex ties that gave rise to and ultimately destroyed the flourishing civilizations of the Late Bronze Age and that set the stage for the emergence of classical Greece. Like frogs around a pond civilizations and city states dotted the Mediterranean over 3200 years ago These civilizations were in contact and had relations in war and peace They were Egypt The Canaanites the Hittites the Minoans the Mycenae the Assyrians all connected through the Mediterranean Something caused them to collapse or suffer major disruption in and around 1177 bce The various culprits have been Earthuakes Climate change causing famine rebellion warfare and a mysterious raider referred by the Egyptians as sea peoples and finally maybe a confluence of these factors that lead to a systems collapse This a fascinating exploration of how a somewhat cosmopolitan bronze age civilization collapsed with a kind of haunting relevance to us today facing similar crisesVideo of a talk by the author